Muskot nöt (krydda) Flera lärda har sagt att det är haram

Jag har flera gånger läst olika texter om Muskot nöt. och flera lärda under flera århundraden har haft åsikten att det är Haram då det kan användas som ett narkotika precis som gräs (röka) Kat (khat, blad som man tuggar på) etc. Och Även dom som säger att det inte är Haram säger att man ska hålla sig borta ifrån det och inte använda det för säkerhets skull. Lägger in några texter om det här nedanför.

trevlig fortsatt matlagning helst utan muskotnöt ;)

Här är en lång fatwa som ställdes angående just kat, men den innehåller även förklaring och åsikten om muskotnöt, som på engelska heter Nutmeg, läser man om nöten på till exempel wikipedia så står det att den innehåller ett amfetamin liknande ämne som i stora doser kan ge förgiftning och vara livshotande...

Q: growing Qat (Khat: leaves and buds that are a habituating stimulant when chewed or used as a tea) is very common in Yemen. What is the ruling on farming, selling, and buying Qat?
A: Qat is prohibited and is impermissible to consume whether by chewing, buying or selling, or to use in any way, like other lawful properties. Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (may Allah be merciful with him) issued a Fatwa (legal opinion issued by a qualified Muslim scholar) prohibiting it, which is stated below.
The thesis by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (may Allah be merciful with him) regarding the prohibition of Qat:
All praise is for Allah; we praise Him, seek His Aid, ask for His Forgiveness and turn to Him in repentance. We seek refuge with Allah from the evils of ourselves and from our bad deeds. Whomever Allah guides none can misguide and whomever Allah allows to be misguided none can guide. I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, Alone, who has no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger. Peace and abundant blessings be upon him, his family and his Companions!
We have received a question about the lawfulness of consuming Qat.
(Part No. 22; Page No. 160)
It is a plant grown mainly in Yemen and is used in a manner well known in this land. It has its benefits and harms and people may be confused regarding its ruling. Since it is widely spread, issuing a ruling depends on knowing the properties of this plant, its benefits and harms, and which of them takes priority over the other. Due to the fact that we do not know much about this plant, as it is not available in our land, we depended on writings of scholars on the subject. After much research and seeking the opinion of reliable trustworthy specialists, we reached the conclusion that Qat is prohibited to cultivate, sell or use. It leads to many evils and harms that affect a Muslim's mind, religion, and body and wastes their money leaving them severely addicted to it. It hinders Muslims from the remembrance of Allah and from Salah (Prayer). Thus, it is harmful and a means to many evils. As such, any means to an evil takes the same ruling as the evil itself. The harmful and intoxicating effect of Qat has been proven, despite all those who claim otherwise. Any generally proven fact takes precedence over its opposite. In addition, Qat is unlawful just like the prohibited Hashish due to their many similarities and the fact that many scholars do not make any distinction between them.
Here is some evidence supporting our findings from the Qur'an, Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet), and the opinions
(Part No. 22; Page No. 161)
of scholars:
Allah (Exalted be He) says: And We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur’an) as an exposition of everything, a guidance, a mercy, and glad tidings for those who have submitted themselves (to Allâh as Muslims). It is related in a Hadith that "When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) has died, he left not even a bird flipping its wings in the sky without giving us information about it." The texts of the Qur'an and Sunnah are enough to provide people with what they may need to know in relation to their religion and life.
Allah, out of His Wisdom and Mercy, made lawful to us everything good and beneficial. However, He prohibited all evils and anything directly, or indirectly, leading to an evil. Allah (Exalted be He) says: They ask you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: "In them is a great sin, and (some) benefit for men, but the sin of them is greater than their benefit." Thus, Allah (Exalted be He) has made Khamr (intoxicant) and gambling unlawful, despite of the benefits they may have. Allah also says: O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), and gambling, and Al-Ansâb, and Al-Azlâm (arrows for seeking luck or decision) are an abomination of Shaitan’s (Satan) handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful. Shaitân (Satan) wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allâh and from As-Salât (the prayer). So, will you not then abstain? (Surah Al-Ma'idah, 5)
(Part No. 22; Page No. 162)
It is related by Imam Ahmad in his "Musnad" (Hadith compilation), and Abu Dawud in his Sunan (Hadith compilations classified by jurisprudential themes) with an authentic Sanad (chain of narrators), on the authority of Um Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her) that she said, “The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) forbade every intoxicant and narcotic.” Scholars define a narcotic as what causes stupor and numbness. Even if we assume that Qat has some benefits, the evils and harms it causes exceed its benefits.
Based upon this, many scholars who have realized the real effects of Qat consider it unlawful and each one of them cites evidence to support his view. One of the scholars who deemed Qat to be forbidden and warned people against it by issuing a Fatwa banning its use was Shaykh Ahmad ibn Hajar Al-Haytamy. He drew an analogy between Qat, Hashish, and nutmeg and considered consuming Qat one of the major sins. In addition, he mentioned it as the 170th major sin in his "Al-Zawajir `an Iqtiraf Al-Kaba'ir" under the chapter on food. Shaykh Ahmad even dedicated a full thesis to the subject entitled "Tah-dhir Al-Thiqat min Isti`mal Al-Kuftah wal-Qat". He said that he received three letters while staying in Makkah from scholars in Sanaa and Zubayd; two of which considered Qat to be unlawful while the third considered it lawful.

(Part No. 22; Page No. 163)
Among the words of Shaykh Ahmad in his thesis are the following: One of the people who deemed Qat to be unlawful is jurist Abu Bakr ibn Ibrahim Al-Muqry Al-Harrazy Al-Shafi`y in his "Tahrim Al-Qat". He said: During my youth, I used to chew it but later I felt it was among the doubtful matters. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, "So anyone who guards themselves against these doubtful matters saves their religion and their honor." I realized the harmful effect of chewing Qat on my body and religion, so I abstained from it. Moreover, Muslim scholars (may Allah be merciful with them) said that Qat is one of the most well known prohibited things. Here are some of its harms: in the beginning, its consumer feels relaxed, delighted and relieved and feels free from all grief. Two hours later, they feel distressed, grieved and ill-tempered. I experienced this state, when someone recited the Qur'an before me, I found it hard to correct them and it was very heavy and taxing on me. Add to this that consuming Qat ruins the appetite and deprives the person from sleep and rest. Another bad effect is that after urinating, something is discharged similar to Wadiy (a thick white secretion discharged by some men after urination) and it continues for a while. It happened to me that each time I performed Wudu' (ablution), I had this discharge and I had to repeat the Wudu'. At other times, I had this discharge during prayer or after it and I had to interrupt the prayer or repeat it, since I was not sure. When I asked others who consume Qat, they confirmed the matter. This is considered a plight affecting Islam and Muslims. `Abdullah ibn Yusuf Al-Muqry
(Part No. 22; Page No. 164)
told me that the knowledgeable scholar Yusuf ibn Yunus Al-Muqry used to say that Qat spread during a time where jurists could not deem anything as lawful or unlawful, but had it spread during the time of later jurists, they would have surely considered it unlawful.
An Iraqi jurist named Ibrahim visited Yemen. He was among those who considered consuming Qat unlawful and disapproved of those who do it. His view was based on what he heard about its consumers' state and he even chewed it more than once to be sure. After trying it, he stressed Qat's unlawfulness due to its harms and intoxicating effect. He used to say that it caused him to discharge Maniy (sperm) after urinating. One day, I sat with him and said, "I hear that you consider Qat to be unlawful," and he confirmed it. So I asked him, "What is your evidence?" He said, "The evidence is its harmful and intoxicating effect. Its harmful effect is apparent, as for its intoxicating effect, let me ask you: does it cause ecstasy?" I replied in the affirmative. So he said that some Shafi`y and other scholars replied to those Hanafi scholars who allow drinking any Nabidh (a syrup prepared by soaking dates or raisins in water for sometime and drunk fresh without being allowed to ferment) that does not intoxicate saying that Nabidh is prohibited just like Khamr due to the general feeling of ecstasy both cause. Then I asked him about the discharge that he considered to be Maniy while its properties are different from Maniy. So he said that it is discharged before its time and told me that he had seen many people losing their mind after consuming Qat. This is a summary of Al-Harrazy's words.
The Iraqi man mentioned in the story - who deemed Qat to be unlawful -
(Part No. 22; Page No. 165)
was staying in Makkah, as a knowledge seeker said that he studied for a long time there and that he recited the Qur'an in front of the Iraqi who praised him a lot. In addition, all scholars who consider Qat to be unlawful agree with the opinion of the knowledgeable jurist Hamzah Al-Nashiry who is one of the reliable sources of Fatwa. This appears in his autobiography "Tarikh Al-Shams Al-Sakhawy" in the famous lines of a verse. The man who was staying in Makkah told me that he recited these lines in front of their author, Hamzah, and he approved of his recitation:

Do not chew Qat neither fresh nor dry,
for it is harmful and may be incurable
Some prominent scholars have said
that it is prohibited due to its harms

It is also related that "The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) forbade every intoxicant and narcotic." A narcotic usually raises the body's temperature and causes languidness and this is the case with Qat, which has the same effect as other intoxicants. Even if there is a false feeling of activeness, it is nothing in reality but the result of intoxication and body numbness. Addiction to any kind of intoxicant even Khamr causes a kind of numbness that may lead to some forms of tremor, hemiplegia, brain dryness, gradual loss of mental faculties and many other harmful effects. Yet the nature of Qat seems to be harmful to one's religion and life. Since it is usually consumed dry or fresh, no rise in temperature is noticed and the real harm
(Part No. 22; Page No. 166)
only appears after addiction. Qat leads to the same evils as opium, which changes the addict's mood and negatively affects their morals and physical appearance. Moreover, Qat is more harmful than opium since it has no benefit at all and causes much harm. It mostly leads to brain dryness, ill-temper, loss of appetite for food or sexual relations, intestinal and stomach failure and many other diseases.
Furthermore, all the negative aspects of Hashish can be attributed to Qat along with its evil health effects, such as loss of appetite and of the desire to have sexual intercourse or have children. Addiction to Qat also wastes a lot of money and leads to squandering.
Even if Qat is thought to have any benefit, it can never match its many evils.
In addition, Qat shares with all other intoxicants the fact of having an intoxicating effect, which is due to numbness, increase in blood pressure, weakening the skin and loss of fats in the brain and body. Qat, unlike Khamr and Hashish, does not help in raising body temperature to balance the decrease in it and this is very harmful.
A Hanafi teacher said that he once visited a Sufi man from Yemen in the Sacred Mosque. The Sufi gave him some Qat and asked him to chew it to gain blessings, but when the man chewed it, he felt numb. So he returned to the Sufi and informed him
(Part No. 22; Page No. 167)
of the opinion of those who deem it to be unlawful. The Sufi said that he has good medical knowledge and a good temperament. He explained that Qat's effect on him is different from its effect on others. The man, who suffered from numbness and drowsiness, swore never to chew Qat again.
An honorable man added that consuming Qat numbs the senses and that once he chewed it and he became unconscious for a long time unable to understand or realize anything. All of these accounts are related by Ibn Hajar in his "Tah-dhir Al-Thiqat min Isti`mal Al-Kuftah wal-Qat".
Ibn Hajar also discussed in his thesis the issue of consuming hashish and nutmeg. He said that the characteristics of both should be mentioned to be able to compare between them and the Qat tree. He also narrated that he was asked about the lawfulness of using nutmeg and he gave his Fatwa that it was prohibited due to its intoxicating effect just like Hashish. Thus, it is confirmed that consuming nutmeg is prohibited according to the Four Imams; Al-Shafi`y, Malik and Ahmad literally and Abu Hanifah by deduction. Ibn Hajar further added that intoxication refers in general to a state of loss of reasoning. This is the general meaning. It can also refer to a state of mental loss accompanied by feelings of excitement and pleasure. This is the specific meaning of the word and this is what is usually referred to when it is used. The first general meaning makes both almost the same. Based on this, every narcotic is an intoxicant but not every intoxicant is a narcotic.
When we say that Hashish and nutmeg intoxicate, we mean they dull one's senses and anyone who denies this must be referring to the specific meaning of the word. Accordingly,
(Part No. 22; Page No. 168)
intoxication resulting from consuming Khamr is characterized by having feelings of ecstasy, delight, or fits of anger and zeal. On the other hand, intoxication resulting from consuming Hashish or nutmeg is characterized by an opposite state of numbness and languor, silence and drowsiness for long periods and lack of zeal. This is what Ibh Hajar said about nutmeg, which can be easily applied to Qat. Some people differ as to the effect of consuming nutmeg, for some say, it causes numbness while others deny it. If the four Imams have deemed consuming nutmeg to be unlawful despite of the different views about it, they must deem Qat as unlawful regardless of the different views about its effects. This is what Ibn Hajar (may Allah be merciful with him) has said.
Ibn Hajar studied the characteristics of Qat and described it as intoxicating and harmful to the mind, religion and body. He further banned, forbade, warned against and even prohibited its use in some statements, while he was not so subtle in other places. This may be understood in light of having no clear text to support his view or as finally having the power to deem it as unlawful later on.
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Salim Al-Bayhany discussed in his "Islah Al-Mujtama`" the Hadith related on the authority of Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) who narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him)
(Part No. 22; Page No. 169)
said, "Every intoxicant is Khamr and all intoxicants are unlawful. Anyone who drinks Khamr in this world and dies while addicted to it will not drink it in the Hereafter." (Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) The Shaykh said after mentioning the Hadith that it is a good opportunity to discuss the issue of qat and Tunbak (tobacco). Many people are afflicted with these calamities and destructive social diseases. Even if both are not considered as intoxicants, their effect is as harmful as consuming Khamr and gambling. They are a waste of money, time and health, and they cause a Muslim to neglect Salah and many other important obligations. He further added that Qat negatively affects the health, weakens the teeth, inflames hemorrhoids, harms the stomach, ruins the appetite, increases the discharge of Wadiy and it may even prevent having children and destroys the Maniy. It causes fatigue, chronic constipation and kidney disease. The offspring of someone addicted to Qat are usually weak, small built, short, anemic, and have many malignant diseases. Add to this the large amounts of money spent on buying Qat which are better spent on buying food and medication, raising children, or on charity. A poet once wrote:

(Part No. 22; Page No. 170)

I decided to quit chewing Qat
to protect myself and save my time
Although I used to consume it
and defend it for a long time
But once I realized its harms
and saw its reality, I resisted it
It is dry but it causes a chill
How blind I was for years
A Qat buyer among his people
is worthless as the money he pays

People would gather to chew Qat from midday until sunset or even until the middle of the night. They would chew the leaves while backbiting others, discussing every evil and talking about others' businesses.
Some Qat consumers claim to use it to help them offer the optional night prayer and that it is the nutrition of righteous people. They claim that Al-Khadir brought it from Mount Qaf to king Dhul-Qarnayn. Moreover, they relate many stories about the benefits of Qat, to the extent that someone once recited:

I enjoy spending my time chewing Qat
You can chew it for worldly as well as eternal blessings
for it repels harms and brings about goodness

Some old men have lost their teeth as a result of chewing Qat and enjoying the sound of it grind under their teeth and sucking its juice. Some people may use dry Qat leaves
(Part No. 22; Page No. 171)
and carry them on journeys and if anyone who does not know Qat sees them eating it, they will mock them. An Egyptian once recited a poem dispraising Yemenites and saying:

O you captives of Qat! Do not antagonize anyone
who does not consider it useful as you do

As for Tunbak, which is tobacco, its evils are even greater and its harms are more severe. It can be considered among the evils that Allah forbade Muslims from. If tobacco only causes the diseases doctors say it does, they are enough to avoid it and abstain from it. Some Muslim scholars exceeded the limits regarding the ruling on tobacco and considered its use to be unlawful as Khamr, fighting it in all ways and deeming its consumer a Fasiq (someone flagrantly violating Islamic law), while others exceeded the limits in permitting its use. The evil tobacco tree was brought to Muslim lands in around 1012 A.H. and has spread ever since.
Shaykh Al-Bayhany further added that some people practice an even worse habit. They chew tobacco or crush it with other substances and put them between their lips and teeth. This habit is called "Al-Shammah" and those who practice it are used to spitting everywhere in a disgusting way. They pollute clean places and unfortunately, some people enjoy this habit. Other people inhale tobacco after grinding it and this practice is called "Al-Bardaqan". They inhale it directly ruining their brains
(Part No. 22; Page No. 172)
and destroying their senses of hearing and sight. They sneeze and blow their noses whether in their hands or in handkerchiefs, or on the floor in front of everyone.
Shaykh Al-Bayhany also said that one of his friends told him that he had a relative who used to sniff Al-Bardaqan. When this relative died, his nose kept excreting an obnoxious substance. If people consumed only what is necessary for their survival, they would be relieved from spending so much and would not expose themselves to such harms.
I do not say that Qat and tobacco are unlawful just as Khamr is unlawful and entails punishment in the Hereafter. I only say that there are similarities between them. Anything that is harmful to man's health, body, mind and wealth is prohibited. Righteousness is what the soul and heart feel at ease with, while sin is what is abrasive to the soul and heart even if people say it is lawful. Allah (Exalted be He) says: O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), and gambling, and Al-Ansâb, and Al-Azlâm (arrows for seeking luck or decision) are an abomination of Shaitan’s (Satan) handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful. Shaitân (Satan) wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allâh and from As-Salât (the prayer). So, will you not then abstain? That is what Shaykh Muhammad ibn Salim Al-Bayhany has said in this regard.
Shaykh Al-Bayhany mentioned the characteristics of Qat and deemed its use as harmful, unlawful
(Part No. 22; Page No. 173)
and prohibited. When he says that he does not compare the unlawfulness of Qat and tobacco to that of Khamr, it seems that he means that the gravity of both is not the same, and the worldly penalty and eternal punishment of both are not the same, despite of sharing the prohibition.
Shaykh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah be merciful with him) said in his "Al-Ikhtiyarat", under the chapter on doubting whether a food or drink is intoxicating or not, that it does not become unlawful just by doubting. If someone consumes such drink or food, the Had (ordained punishment for violating Allah’s Law) is not executed on them and such drink or food should not be made lawful for people, if it might be intoxicating. Making lawful what is unlawful is similar to making unlawful what is lawful. So the opinion of someone reliable is to be sought, such as someone who has tried consuming it and repented, someone who tried it not knowing that it is prohibited or someone who tried it believing it is lawful as a treatment. The method of Kufi people also allows consuming a small amount of Nabidh. So if a group of those who have tried a drink or food think it is unlawful, and since it is hard for all of them to agree on a lie, then this item should be deemed unlawful. The matter is similar to the Tawatur (transmission of an account by many people whose agreement upon a lie is impossible) and Istifadah (transmission of a prevailing account). Some realities such as death, lineage, marriage and divorce prevail among Fasiqs and Kafirs (non-Muslims). We have one of two options, either to follow the transmitted view, since Tawatur does not require Islam or uprightness for its validity, or to accept
(Part No. 22; Page No. 174)
this prevailing view based on the fact that Istifadah achieves the same purpose of Tawatur. We can also test some upright men in relation to two matters.
One: the unlawfulness of such an item was not known before interpretation and thus it is permissible to consume it. The undesirability of committing a doubtful matter is opposed by the benefit of discovering its real nature. Two: prohibited items may be lawful when necessary, and it is necessary to discover its reality. Thus it is permissible to consume such doubtful drink or food. These were the words of Shaykh Al-Islam Taqy Al-Din (may Allah be merciful with him).
The conclusion reached by Shaykh Al-Islam (may Allah be merciful with him) shows the soundness of the method we have adopted in proving the unlawfulness of Qat and that it adheres to Shari`ah (Islamic law) and applied Islamic standards. Consequently, it is proven that Qat is prohibited and totally banned, whether for cultivation, supply, consumption or anything else.
This is clear to anyone who considers what we have said in the light of Shari`ah rulings and principles. Always bear in mind that averting evil takes precedence over bringing about good. Allah speaks the truth, and He guides to the Right Way.
This thesis was written by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn `Abdul-Latif Al Al-Shaykh. Peace and blessings be upon Muhammad, his family, and his Companions!

(Part No. 22; Page No. 175)
Written on 11/4/1376 A.H.
May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta'

Member Member Deputy Chairman Chairman
`Abdullah ibn Qa`ud `Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan `Abdul-Razzaq `Afify `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz

1 kommentar:

Umayma sa...

Salam alaykom. Jag använder själv muskotnöt ibland,och jag går efter de lärda som säger att man får använda den i ytterst små mängder. Vet att det får importeras i Saudi Arabien om det finns i en kryddblandning och inte överstiger 20% av innehållet.