Halloween är inte för muslimer

Every year, on the evening of October 31st, millions of children across North America paint their faces, dress up in costumes, and go door to door collecting treats. The adults often decorate their houses with ghostly figures, carve scary faces on pumpkins, and put candles in them to create “Jack-O-Lanterns.” Unfortunately, among the millions of North Americans indulging in this custom, many are also Muslims. This article will shed some light on the significance and origins of Hallow’een, and why Muslims should not participate in it.

Origins of the Hallow’een Festival

The ancient Celtic (Irish/Scottish/Welsh) festival called Samhain is considered by most historians and scholars to be the predecessor of what is now Hallow’een. Samhain was the New Year’s day of the pagan Celts. It was also the Day of the Dead, a time when it was believed that the souls of those who had died during the year were allowed access into the “land of the dead”. Many traditional beliefs and customs associated with Samhain continue to be practiced today on the 31st of October. Most notable of these customs are the practice of leaving offerings of food and drink (now candy) to masked and costumed revelers, and the lighting of bonfires. Elements of this festival were incorporated into the Christian festival of All Hallow’s Eve, or Hallow-Even, the night preceding All Saint’s (Hallows’) Day. It is the glossing of the name Hallow- Even that has given us the name of Hallow’een. Until recent times in some parts of Europe, it was believed that on this night the dead walked amongst them, and that witches and warlocks flew in their midst. In preparation for this, bonfires were built to ward off these malevolent spirits.

By the 19th century, witches’ pranks were replaced by children’s tricks. The spirits of Samhain, once believed to be wild and powerful, were now recognized as being evil. Devout Christians began rejecting this festival. They had discovered that the so-called gods, goddesses, and other spiritual beings of the pagan religions, were diabolical deceptions. The spiritual forces that people experienced during this festival were indeed real, but they were manifestations of the devil who misled people toward the worship of false idols. Thus, they rejected the customs associated with Hallow’een, including all representations of ghosts, vampires, and human skeletons – symbols of the dead – and of the devil and other malevolent and evil creatures. It must also be noted that, to this day, many Satan-worshippers consider the evening of October 31st to be their most sacred. And many devout Christians today continue to distance themselves from this pagan festival.

The Islamic Perspective

Iman (faith) is the foundation of Islamic society, and tauheed (the belief in the existence and Oneness of Allaah) is the essence of this faith and the very core of Islam. The safeguarding of this iman, and of this pure tauheed, is the primary objective of all Islamic teachings and legislation. In order to keep the Muslim society purified of all traces of shirk (associating partners with Allaah) and remnants of error, a continuous war must be waged against all customs and practises which originate from societies’ ignorance of divine guidance, and in the errors of idol worship.
Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) issued a stern warning: “Whoever imitates a nation is one of them!” (Abu Da’oud). Muslims should heed this warning and refrain from copying or imitating the kufar in their celebrations. Islam has strongly forbidden Muslims to follow the religious or social customs of the non-Muslims, and especially of the idol-worshippers or those who worship the devil. The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: “By Him in Whose hands is my life, you are ordered to enjoin good and forbid evil, or else Allaah will certainly afflict you with torments. Thereafter, even your du’a (supplications) will not be accepted.” (Tirmidhi). From an Islamic standpoint, Hallow’een is one of the worst celebrations because of its origins and history. It is HARAM (forbidden), even if there may be some seemingly good or harmless elements in those practises, as evidenced by a statement from the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) “Every innovation (in our religion) is misguidance, even if the people regard it as something good” [1]. Although it may be argued that the celebration of Hallow’een today has nothing to do with devil-worship, it is still forbidden for Muslims to participate in it. If Muslims begin to take part in such customs, it is a sure sign of weak iman and that we have either forgotten, or outrightly rejected the mission of our Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) who came to cleanse us from jahiliyyah customs, superstitions and false practises.

Muslims are enjoined to neither imitate the behaviour and customs of the non-Muslims, nor to commit their indecencies. Behaviour-imitation will affect the attitude of a Muslim and may create a feeling of sympathy towards the indecent modes of life. Islam seeks to cleanse the Muslim of all immoral conducts and habits, and thus paving the way for the Qur’an and Sunnah to be the correct and pure source for original Islamic thought and behaviour. A Muslim should be a model for others in faith and practice, behaviour and moral character, and not a blind imitator dependant on other nations and cultures.

Even if one decides to go along with the outward practices of Hallow’een without acknowledging the deeper significance or historical background of this custom, he or she is still guilty of indulging in this pagan festival.

 Undoubtedly, even after hearing the Truth, some Muslims will still participate in Hallow’een, send their kids “trick-or-treating,” and they will try to justify it by saying they are doing it merely to make their children happy. But what is the duty of Muslim parents? Is it to follow the wishes of their children without question, or to mould them within the correct Islamic framework as outlined in the Qur’an and Sunnah? Is it not the responsibility of Muslim parents to impart correct Islamic training and instruction to their children? How can this duty be performed if, instead of instructing the children in Islam, parents allow and encourage their children to be taught the way of the unbelievers? Allaah exposes these types of people in the Qur’an: “We have sent them the Truth, but they indeed practise falsehood” (23:10). Muslim parents must teach their children to refrain from practising falsehood, and not to imitate the non-Muslims in their customs and festivals. If the children are taught to be proud of their Islamic heritage, they themselves will, insha Allaah, abstain from Hallow’een and other non-Muslim celebrations, such as birthdays, anniversaries, Christmas, Valentines Day, etc. The Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: The Final Hour will not come until my followers copy the deeds of the previous nations and follow them very closely, span by span, and cubit by cubit (inch by inch). (Bukhari). Islam is a pure religion with no need to accomodate any custom, practise or celebration that is not a part of it. Islam does not distinguish between “secular and sacred;” the shari’ah must rule every aspect of our lives.
“You must keep to my Sunnah and the sunnah of the rightly-guided Caliphs; cling to it firmly. Beware of newly invented matters, for every new matter is an innovation, and every innovation is misleading.”[2]
“When the people see a person committing a wrong, but do not seize his hand to restrain him or her from the deed, it is likely that Allaah will punish them both.” (Abu Da’oud, Nasa’i, Tirmidhi)
“Whoever imitates a nation is one of them.” (Abu Da’oud)

What to do on Halloween

We have established, beyond doubt, that the celebration of Hallow’een is absolutely forbidden in Islam. It is HARAM. The question arises as to what to do on this night. Muslim parents must not send their kids out “trick-or-treating” on Hallow’een night. Our children must be told why we do not celebrate Hallow’een. Most children are very receptive when taught with sincerity, and especially when shown in practice the joy of their own Islamic celebrations and traditions. In this regard, teach them about the two Islamic festivals of Eid. (Eid-ul-Fitr is fast approaching, and this is the perfect time to start preparing them for it.) It must also be mentioned that, even Muslims who stay home and give out treats to those who come to their door are still participating in this festival. In order to avoid this, leave the front lights off and do not open the door

. Educate your neighbours about our Islamic teachings. Inform them in advance that Muslims do not participate in Hallow’een, and explain the reasons why.

 (Give them a copy of this flyer if needed.) They will respect your wishes, and you will gain respect in the process. “A person who calls another to guidance will be rewarded, as will the one who accepts the message.” (Tirmidhi)
Finally, we must remember that we are fully accountable to Allaah for all of our actions and deeds. If, after knowing the Truth, we do not cease our un-Islamic practises, we risk the wrath of Allaah as He himself warned us in the Qur’an: “Then let them beware who refuse the Messenger’s order lest some trial befall them, or a grevious punishment be afflicted upon them!” (24:63). This is a serious matter and not to be taken lightly. And Allaah knows best. May Allaah guide us, help us to stay on the right path, and save us from all deviations and innovations that will lead us into the fires of Hell.
[Source: Salaf-us-Saalih]
[1] The Hadeeth was reported as Marfoo` by Al-Harawee but it was graded Da`eef by Shaykh Al-Albaanee in Ahkaam-ul-Janaa’iz.
What is confirmed is that it is a statement of `Abdullaah ibn `Umar ibn Al-Khattaab (radiyallaahu `anhumaa). This was reported by Al-Baihaqee in Al-Madkhal ilas-Sunan (#191), Ibn Nasr in As-Sunnah (#70), Ibn Battah in Al-Ibaanah (#205) and Al-Laalikaa’ee in Sharh Usool I`tiqaad Ahlis-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah (#126).
It was graded Saheeh by Shaykh Al-Albaanee in his checking of Islaah-ul-Masaajid (p.15), in As-Saheehah (2735) and Ahkaam-ul-Janaa’iz (124), by Shaykh `Alee Hasan Al-Halabee in `Ilm Usool-il-Bid` (p.92) and by Shaykh Mash-hoor Salmaan in his checking of As-Suyootee’s Al-Amr bil-Ittibaa` wan-Nahy `anil-Ibtidaa` (p.64). Shaykh Saleem Al-Hilaalee said in Al-Bid`ah wa Atharuha As-Sayyi’ fil-Ummah (p.42): “Its Isnaad is Saheeh like the sun!”
[2] This is reported by Ahmad (4/126), Abu Daawood (4607), Ibn Maajah (43,44), At-Tirmidhee (2676), Al-Haakim (1/95-96), Ibn Hibbaan (5) and others. However, it is not in Saheeh-ul-Bukhaaree.

The Kaa´ba´s Kiswa

The Kaa’ba is covered by a black cloth known as ‘Kiswa’, which is produced and changed every year. It takes place on Dul Hijjah 9 of every year
The Kiswa Factory was built in Makkah about 74 years ago by the Kingdom’s founder King Abdul Aziz. A new kiswa is made every year by Saudis who work at the factory.
The Kiswa is composed of three parts: a Sitaar (curtain) of the Kaaba door, an inner lining curtain inside the Kaaba and a Hizam (the belt). It is manufactured at the Kiswa factory, which is located in Makkah’s Umm Al-Joud suburb. More than 240 people work in the factory.
Expert artisans embroider the cloth with gold and silver threads to create calligraphy using the verses from the Qur’an.
The Kiswa consists of 47 pieces of cloth and each piece is 14 meters long and 101 cm broad. The Kiswa is wrapped around the Kaaba and fixed to the ground with copper rings.
Expert artisan embroider the cloth with gold and silver threads
The black kiswa is made with 670 kg of pure silk, and 150 kg of gold and silver thread that is used for sewing the Qur’anic verses. It is 658 square meters in size and consists of 47 pieces, each 14 meters long and 95 cm wide. It costs about SR16.8 million ($4.5 million).


etiquettes of slaughtering for sacrificial offering

There are certain etiquettes one must abide by when slaughtering an animal for a sacrificial offering. However, these etiquettes are not conditional for the validity of a sacrifice. So the sacrifice is still valid even in their absence.

Among these etiquettes are:

1. He should face the Qiblah with the animal at the time of slaughtering.

2. He must slaughter the animal in a good manner, which is by quickly and firmly passing a sharpened blade over the neck area.
Some scholars hold the view that this etiquette is obligatory based on the implication found in the Prophet’s saying: “Verily Allaah has prescribed proficiency in everything. So when you kill, kill proficiently. And when you sacrifice, sacrifice proficiently. Each of you should sharpen his blade and lessen the pain inflicted on his sacrificial offering.” [Reported by Muslim]
This opinion is the correct view.

3. The slaughter of a camel must be done by cutting the area just below the neck and above the chest. This is known as nahr. As for all other types of animals, their necks should be sliced.
A camel should be slaughtered while standing and with its (front) left leg tied. If it is difficult to do it this way, the camel can be slaughtered while kneeling.
As for all of the other animals, they are to be slaughtered while lying flat on their left side. However, if the one slaughtering is a lefty, he may use his left hand and lay the animal down on its right side. This is so long as doing it this way is easier upon the animal and more convenient for the one slaughtering.
It is also prescribed for him to place his foot on the collar of the animal to give him better control. As for making the animal kneel and tying its legs together, there is no basis for this in the Sunnah. Some scholars mentioned that one of the reasons why the legs should not be tied is so that the outflow of blood can increase as a result of the animal’s constant motion and instability.

4. The throat and esophagus of the animal should be cut in addition to its jugular veins. For more on this, refer to the discussion on this under the eighth condition of slaughtering.

5. The blade should be concealed from the view of the animal when sharpening it. This means that the animal should not see the blade until the time of the actual slaughter.

6. One should glorify Allaah (by saying Allaahu Akbar) after mentioning His Name (by saying Bismillaah) when slaughtering.

7. One should name the person whom the sacrificial offering (udhiyah) or ‘aqeeqah is being performed for after mentioning Allaah’s Name and glorifying Him. He should also ask Allaah to accept it from him.
So for example, he should say: “In the Name of Allaah, Allaah is the Greatest. O Allaah, this is from You and for You on behalf of me” if he is performing the slaughter for himself or “…on behalf of so and so” if the slaughter is being done on behalf of someone else. And he should say: “O Allaah, accept this from me” if he is performing the slaughter for himself or “…accept this from so and so” if the slaughter is being done on behalf of someone else.
[Shaykh Imaam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-'Uthaimeen|Talkhees Ahkaam-ul-Udhiyah wadh-Dhakaat|Al-Ibaanah.com]

Human Nature

It is the nature of the soul; if you do not preoccupy it with truth, it will occupy you with falsehood.
It is the nature of the heart; if you do not accommodate it with love of Allaah, it will dwell with love of creation and this is a certain reality.
It is the nature of the tongue; if you do not preoccupy it with remembrance, it will most definitely occupy you with frivolity.. By Ibn Al Qaiyyim
Transcribed from: Causes Behind the Increase and Decrease of Eemaan | ‘Abdur-Razzq al-’Abbaad


Muskot nöt (krydda) Flera lärda har sagt att det är haram

Jag har flera gånger läst olika texter om Muskot nöt. och flera lärda under flera århundraden har haft åsikten att det är Haram då det kan användas som ett narkotika precis som gräs (röka) Kat (khat, blad som man tuggar på) etc. Och Även dom som säger att det inte är Haram säger att man ska hålla sig borta ifrån det och inte använda det för säkerhets skull. Lägger in några texter om det här nedanför.

trevlig fortsatt matlagning helst utan muskotnöt ;)

Här är en lång fatwa som ställdes angående just kat, men den innehåller även förklaring och åsikten om muskotnöt, som på engelska heter Nutmeg, läser man om nöten på till exempel wikipedia så står det att den innehåller ett amfetamin liknande ämne som i stora doser kan ge förgiftning och vara livshotande...

Q: growing Qat (Khat: leaves and buds that are a habituating stimulant when chewed or used as a tea) is very common in Yemen. What is the ruling on farming, selling, and buying Qat?
A: Qat is prohibited and is impermissible to consume whether by chewing, buying or selling, or to use in any way, like other lawful properties. Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (may Allah be merciful with him) issued a Fatwa (legal opinion issued by a qualified Muslim scholar) prohibiting it, which is stated below.
The thesis by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (may Allah be merciful with him) regarding the prohibition of Qat:
All praise is for Allah; we praise Him, seek His Aid, ask for His Forgiveness and turn to Him in repentance. We seek refuge with Allah from the evils of ourselves and from our bad deeds. Whomever Allah guides none can misguide and whomever Allah allows to be misguided none can guide. I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, Alone, who has no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger. Peace and abundant blessings be upon him, his family and his Companions!
We have received a question about the lawfulness of consuming Qat.
(Part No. 22; Page No. 160)
It is a plant grown mainly in Yemen and is used in a manner well known in this land. It has its benefits and harms and people may be confused regarding its ruling. Since it is widely spread, issuing a ruling depends on knowing the properties of this plant, its benefits and harms, and which of them takes priority over the other. Due to the fact that we do not know much about this plant, as it is not available in our land, we depended on writings of scholars on the subject. After much research and seeking the opinion of reliable trustworthy specialists, we reached the conclusion that Qat is prohibited to cultivate, sell or use. It leads to many evils and harms that affect a Muslim's mind, religion, and body and wastes their money leaving them severely addicted to it. It hinders Muslims from the remembrance of Allah and from Salah (Prayer). Thus, it is harmful and a means to many evils. As such, any means to an evil takes the same ruling as the evil itself. The harmful and intoxicating effect of Qat has been proven, despite all those who claim otherwise. Any generally proven fact takes precedence over its opposite. In addition, Qat is unlawful just like the prohibited Hashish due to their many similarities and the fact that many scholars do not make any distinction between them.
Here is some evidence supporting our findings from the Qur'an, Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet), and the opinions
(Part No. 22; Page No. 161)
of scholars:
Allah (Exalted be He) says: And We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur’an) as an exposition of everything, a guidance, a mercy, and glad tidings for those who have submitted themselves (to Allâh as Muslims). It is related in a Hadith that "When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) has died, he left not even a bird flipping its wings in the sky without giving us information about it." The texts of the Qur'an and Sunnah are enough to provide people with what they may need to know in relation to their religion and life.
Allah, out of His Wisdom and Mercy, made lawful to us everything good and beneficial. However, He prohibited all evils and anything directly, or indirectly, leading to an evil. Allah (Exalted be He) says: They ask you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: "In them is a great sin, and (some) benefit for men, but the sin of them is greater than their benefit." Thus, Allah (Exalted be He) has made Khamr (intoxicant) and gambling unlawful, despite of the benefits they may have. Allah also says: O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), and gambling, and Al-Ansâb, and Al-Azlâm (arrows for seeking luck or decision) are an abomination of Shaitan’s (Satan) handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful. Shaitân (Satan) wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allâh and from As-Salât (the prayer). So, will you not then abstain? (Surah Al-Ma'idah, 5)
(Part No. 22; Page No. 162)
It is related by Imam Ahmad in his "Musnad" (Hadith compilation), and Abu Dawud in his Sunan (Hadith compilations classified by jurisprudential themes) with an authentic Sanad (chain of narrators), on the authority of Um Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her) that she said, “The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) forbade every intoxicant and narcotic.” Scholars define a narcotic as what causes stupor and numbness. Even if we assume that Qat has some benefits, the evils and harms it causes exceed its benefits.
Based upon this, many scholars who have realized the real effects of Qat consider it unlawful and each one of them cites evidence to support his view. One of the scholars who deemed Qat to be forbidden and warned people against it by issuing a Fatwa banning its use was Shaykh Ahmad ibn Hajar Al-Haytamy. He drew an analogy between Qat, Hashish, and nutmeg and considered consuming Qat one of the major sins. In addition, he mentioned it as the 170th major sin in his "Al-Zawajir `an Iqtiraf Al-Kaba'ir" under the chapter on food. Shaykh Ahmad even dedicated a full thesis to the subject entitled "Tah-dhir Al-Thiqat min Isti`mal Al-Kuftah wal-Qat". He said that he received three letters while staying in Makkah from scholars in Sanaa and Zubayd; two of which considered Qat to be unlawful while the third considered it lawful.

(Part No. 22; Page No. 163)
Among the words of Shaykh Ahmad in his thesis are the following: One of the people who deemed Qat to be unlawful is jurist Abu Bakr ibn Ibrahim Al-Muqry Al-Harrazy Al-Shafi`y in his "Tahrim Al-Qat". He said: During my youth, I used to chew it but later I felt it was among the doubtful matters. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, "So anyone who guards themselves against these doubtful matters saves their religion and their honor." I realized the harmful effect of chewing Qat on my body and religion, so I abstained from it. Moreover, Muslim scholars (may Allah be merciful with them) said that Qat is one of the most well known prohibited things. Here are some of its harms: in the beginning, its consumer feels relaxed, delighted and relieved and feels free from all grief. Two hours later, they feel distressed, grieved and ill-tempered. I experienced this state, when someone recited the Qur'an before me, I found it hard to correct them and it was very heavy and taxing on me. Add to this that consuming Qat ruins the appetite and deprives the person from sleep and rest. Another bad effect is that after urinating, something is discharged similar to Wadiy (a thick white secretion discharged by some men after urination) and it continues for a while. It happened to me that each time I performed Wudu' (ablution), I had this discharge and I had to repeat the Wudu'. At other times, I had this discharge during prayer or after it and I had to interrupt the prayer or repeat it, since I was not sure. When I asked others who consume Qat, they confirmed the matter. This is considered a plight affecting Islam and Muslims. `Abdullah ibn Yusuf Al-Muqry
(Part No. 22; Page No. 164)
told me that the knowledgeable scholar Yusuf ibn Yunus Al-Muqry used to say that Qat spread during a time where jurists could not deem anything as lawful or unlawful, but had it spread during the time of later jurists, they would have surely considered it unlawful.
An Iraqi jurist named Ibrahim visited Yemen. He was among those who considered consuming Qat unlawful and disapproved of those who do it. His view was based on what he heard about its consumers' state and he even chewed it more than once to be sure. After trying it, he stressed Qat's unlawfulness due to its harms and intoxicating effect. He used to say that it caused him to discharge Maniy (sperm) after urinating. One day, I sat with him and said, "I hear that you consider Qat to be unlawful," and he confirmed it. So I asked him, "What is your evidence?" He said, "The evidence is its harmful and intoxicating effect. Its harmful effect is apparent, as for its intoxicating effect, let me ask you: does it cause ecstasy?" I replied in the affirmative. So he said that some Shafi`y and other scholars replied to those Hanafi scholars who allow drinking any Nabidh (a syrup prepared by soaking dates or raisins in water for sometime and drunk fresh without being allowed to ferment) that does not intoxicate saying that Nabidh is prohibited just like Khamr due to the general feeling of ecstasy both cause. Then I asked him about the discharge that he considered to be Maniy while its properties are different from Maniy. So he said that it is discharged before its time and told me that he had seen many people losing their mind after consuming Qat. This is a summary of Al-Harrazy's words.
The Iraqi man mentioned in the story - who deemed Qat to be unlawful -
(Part No. 22; Page No. 165)
was staying in Makkah, as a knowledge seeker said that he studied for a long time there and that he recited the Qur'an in front of the Iraqi who praised him a lot. In addition, all scholars who consider Qat to be unlawful agree with the opinion of the knowledgeable jurist Hamzah Al-Nashiry who is one of the reliable sources of Fatwa. This appears in his autobiography "Tarikh Al-Shams Al-Sakhawy" in the famous lines of a verse. The man who was staying in Makkah told me that he recited these lines in front of their author, Hamzah, and he approved of his recitation:

Do not chew Qat neither fresh nor dry,
for it is harmful and may be incurable
Some prominent scholars have said
that it is prohibited due to its harms

It is also related that "The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) forbade every intoxicant and narcotic." A narcotic usually raises the body's temperature and causes languidness and this is the case with Qat, which has the same effect as other intoxicants. Even if there is a false feeling of activeness, it is nothing in reality but the result of intoxication and body numbness. Addiction to any kind of intoxicant even Khamr causes a kind of numbness that may lead to some forms of tremor, hemiplegia, brain dryness, gradual loss of mental faculties and many other harmful effects. Yet the nature of Qat seems to be harmful to one's religion and life. Since it is usually consumed dry or fresh, no rise in temperature is noticed and the real harm
(Part No. 22; Page No. 166)
only appears after addiction. Qat leads to the same evils as opium, which changes the addict's mood and negatively affects their morals and physical appearance. Moreover, Qat is more harmful than opium since it has no benefit at all and causes much harm. It mostly leads to brain dryness, ill-temper, loss of appetite for food or sexual relations, intestinal and stomach failure and many other diseases.
Furthermore, all the negative aspects of Hashish can be attributed to Qat along with its evil health effects, such as loss of appetite and of the desire to have sexual intercourse or have children. Addiction to Qat also wastes a lot of money and leads to squandering.
Even if Qat is thought to have any benefit, it can never match its many evils.
In addition, Qat shares with all other intoxicants the fact of having an intoxicating effect, which is due to numbness, increase in blood pressure, weakening the skin and loss of fats in the brain and body. Qat, unlike Khamr and Hashish, does not help in raising body temperature to balance the decrease in it and this is very harmful.
A Hanafi teacher said that he once visited a Sufi man from Yemen in the Sacred Mosque. The Sufi gave him some Qat and asked him to chew it to gain blessings, but when the man chewed it, he felt numb. So he returned to the Sufi and informed him
(Part No. 22; Page No. 167)
of the opinion of those who deem it to be unlawful. The Sufi said that he has good medical knowledge and a good temperament. He explained that Qat's effect on him is different from its effect on others. The man, who suffered from numbness and drowsiness, swore never to chew Qat again.
An honorable man added that consuming Qat numbs the senses and that once he chewed it and he became unconscious for a long time unable to understand or realize anything. All of these accounts are related by Ibn Hajar in his "Tah-dhir Al-Thiqat min Isti`mal Al-Kuftah wal-Qat".
Ibn Hajar also discussed in his thesis the issue of consuming hashish and nutmeg. He said that the characteristics of both should be mentioned to be able to compare between them and the Qat tree. He also narrated that he was asked about the lawfulness of using nutmeg and he gave his Fatwa that it was prohibited due to its intoxicating effect just like Hashish. Thus, it is confirmed that consuming nutmeg is prohibited according to the Four Imams; Al-Shafi`y, Malik and Ahmad literally and Abu Hanifah by deduction. Ibn Hajar further added that intoxication refers in general to a state of loss of reasoning. This is the general meaning. It can also refer to a state of mental loss accompanied by feelings of excitement and pleasure. This is the specific meaning of the word and this is what is usually referred to when it is used. The first general meaning makes both almost the same. Based on this, every narcotic is an intoxicant but not every intoxicant is a narcotic.
When we say that Hashish and nutmeg intoxicate, we mean they dull one's senses and anyone who denies this must be referring to the specific meaning of the word. Accordingly,
(Part No. 22; Page No. 168)
intoxication resulting from consuming Khamr is characterized by having feelings of ecstasy, delight, or fits of anger and zeal. On the other hand, intoxication resulting from consuming Hashish or nutmeg is characterized by an opposite state of numbness and languor, silence and drowsiness for long periods and lack of zeal. This is what Ibh Hajar said about nutmeg, which can be easily applied to Qat. Some people differ as to the effect of consuming nutmeg, for some say, it causes numbness while others deny it. If the four Imams have deemed consuming nutmeg to be unlawful despite of the different views about it, they must deem Qat as unlawful regardless of the different views about its effects. This is what Ibn Hajar (may Allah be merciful with him) has said.
Ibn Hajar studied the characteristics of Qat and described it as intoxicating and harmful to the mind, religion and body. He further banned, forbade, warned against and even prohibited its use in some statements, while he was not so subtle in other places. This may be understood in light of having no clear text to support his view or as finally having the power to deem it as unlawful later on.
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Salim Al-Bayhany discussed in his "Islah Al-Mujtama`" the Hadith related on the authority of Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) who narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him)
(Part No. 22; Page No. 169)
said, "Every intoxicant is Khamr and all intoxicants are unlawful. Anyone who drinks Khamr in this world and dies while addicted to it will not drink it in the Hereafter." (Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) The Shaykh said after mentioning the Hadith that it is a good opportunity to discuss the issue of qat and Tunbak (tobacco). Many people are afflicted with these calamities and destructive social diseases. Even if both are not considered as intoxicants, their effect is as harmful as consuming Khamr and gambling. They are a waste of money, time and health, and they cause a Muslim to neglect Salah and many other important obligations. He further added that Qat negatively affects the health, weakens the teeth, inflames hemorrhoids, harms the stomach, ruins the appetite, increases the discharge of Wadiy and it may even prevent having children and destroys the Maniy. It causes fatigue, chronic constipation and kidney disease. The offspring of someone addicted to Qat are usually weak, small built, short, anemic, and have many malignant diseases. Add to this the large amounts of money spent on buying Qat which are better spent on buying food and medication, raising children, or on charity. A poet once wrote:

(Part No. 22; Page No. 170)

I decided to quit chewing Qat
to protect myself and save my time
Although I used to consume it
and defend it for a long time
But once I realized its harms
and saw its reality, I resisted it
It is dry but it causes a chill
How blind I was for years
A Qat buyer among his people
is worthless as the money he pays

People would gather to chew Qat from midday until sunset or even until the middle of the night. They would chew the leaves while backbiting others, discussing every evil and talking about others' businesses.
Some Qat consumers claim to use it to help them offer the optional night prayer and that it is the nutrition of righteous people. They claim that Al-Khadir brought it from Mount Qaf to king Dhul-Qarnayn. Moreover, they relate many stories about the benefits of Qat, to the extent that someone once recited:

I enjoy spending my time chewing Qat
You can chew it for worldly as well as eternal blessings
for it repels harms and brings about goodness

Some old men have lost their teeth as a result of chewing Qat and enjoying the sound of it grind under their teeth and sucking its juice. Some people may use dry Qat leaves
(Part No. 22; Page No. 171)
and carry them on journeys and if anyone who does not know Qat sees them eating it, they will mock them. An Egyptian once recited a poem dispraising Yemenites and saying:

O you captives of Qat! Do not antagonize anyone
who does not consider it useful as you do

As for Tunbak, which is tobacco, its evils are even greater and its harms are more severe. It can be considered among the evils that Allah forbade Muslims from. If tobacco only causes the diseases doctors say it does, they are enough to avoid it and abstain from it. Some Muslim scholars exceeded the limits regarding the ruling on tobacco and considered its use to be unlawful as Khamr, fighting it in all ways and deeming its consumer a Fasiq (someone flagrantly violating Islamic law), while others exceeded the limits in permitting its use. The evil tobacco tree was brought to Muslim lands in around 1012 A.H. and has spread ever since.
Shaykh Al-Bayhany further added that some people practice an even worse habit. They chew tobacco or crush it with other substances and put them between their lips and teeth. This habit is called "Al-Shammah" and those who practice it are used to spitting everywhere in a disgusting way. They pollute clean places and unfortunately, some people enjoy this habit. Other people inhale tobacco after grinding it and this practice is called "Al-Bardaqan". They inhale it directly ruining their brains
(Part No. 22; Page No. 172)
and destroying their senses of hearing and sight. They sneeze and blow their noses whether in their hands or in handkerchiefs, or on the floor in front of everyone.
Shaykh Al-Bayhany also said that one of his friends told him that he had a relative who used to sniff Al-Bardaqan. When this relative died, his nose kept excreting an obnoxious substance. If people consumed only what is necessary for their survival, they would be relieved from spending so much and would not expose themselves to such harms.
I do not say that Qat and tobacco are unlawful just as Khamr is unlawful and entails punishment in the Hereafter. I only say that there are similarities between them. Anything that is harmful to man's health, body, mind and wealth is prohibited. Righteousness is what the soul and heart feel at ease with, while sin is what is abrasive to the soul and heart even if people say it is lawful. Allah (Exalted be He) says: O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), and gambling, and Al-Ansâb, and Al-Azlâm (arrows for seeking luck or decision) are an abomination of Shaitan’s (Satan) handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful. Shaitân (Satan) wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allâh and from As-Salât (the prayer). So, will you not then abstain? That is what Shaykh Muhammad ibn Salim Al-Bayhany has said in this regard.
Shaykh Al-Bayhany mentioned the characteristics of Qat and deemed its use as harmful, unlawful
(Part No. 22; Page No. 173)
and prohibited. When he says that he does not compare the unlawfulness of Qat and tobacco to that of Khamr, it seems that he means that the gravity of both is not the same, and the worldly penalty and eternal punishment of both are not the same, despite of sharing the prohibition.
Shaykh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah be merciful with him) said in his "Al-Ikhtiyarat", under the chapter on doubting whether a food or drink is intoxicating or not, that it does not become unlawful just by doubting. If someone consumes such drink or food, the Had (ordained punishment for violating Allah’s Law) is not executed on them and such drink or food should not be made lawful for people, if it might be intoxicating. Making lawful what is unlawful is similar to making unlawful what is lawful. So the opinion of someone reliable is to be sought, such as someone who has tried consuming it and repented, someone who tried it not knowing that it is prohibited or someone who tried it believing it is lawful as a treatment. The method of Kufi people also allows consuming a small amount of Nabidh. So if a group of those who have tried a drink or food think it is unlawful, and since it is hard for all of them to agree on a lie, then this item should be deemed unlawful. The matter is similar to the Tawatur (transmission of an account by many people whose agreement upon a lie is impossible) and Istifadah (transmission of a prevailing account). Some realities such as death, lineage, marriage and divorce prevail among Fasiqs and Kafirs (non-Muslims). We have one of two options, either to follow the transmitted view, since Tawatur does not require Islam or uprightness for its validity, or to accept
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this prevailing view based on the fact that Istifadah achieves the same purpose of Tawatur. We can also test some upright men in relation to two matters.
One: the unlawfulness of such an item was not known before interpretation and thus it is permissible to consume it. The undesirability of committing a doubtful matter is opposed by the benefit of discovering its real nature. Two: prohibited items may be lawful when necessary, and it is necessary to discover its reality. Thus it is permissible to consume such doubtful drink or food. These were the words of Shaykh Al-Islam Taqy Al-Din (may Allah be merciful with him).
The conclusion reached by Shaykh Al-Islam (may Allah be merciful with him) shows the soundness of the method we have adopted in proving the unlawfulness of Qat and that it adheres to Shari`ah (Islamic law) and applied Islamic standards. Consequently, it is proven that Qat is prohibited and totally banned, whether for cultivation, supply, consumption or anything else.
This is clear to anyone who considers what we have said in the light of Shari`ah rulings and principles. Always bear in mind that averting evil takes precedence over bringing about good. Allah speaks the truth, and He guides to the Right Way.
This thesis was written by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn `Abdul-Latif Al Al-Shaykh. Peace and blessings be upon Muhammad, his family, and his Companions!

(Part No. 22; Page No. 175)
Written on 11/4/1376 A.H.
May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta'

Member Member Deputy Chairman Chairman
`Abdullah ibn Qa`ud `Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan `Abdul-Razzaq `Afify `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz